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Record Type Taxonomy

A Master Checklist

WEREN'T ALL THE RECORDS DESTROYED?

All the records were not destroyed. In fact, more than 350 types of records are available to help researchers discover their Jewish ancestors. Many of these are unique to the Jewish experience. We have organized them into 10 major categories.

LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED

We have created a Master Checklist of all the record types — a great reference tool to ensure you have considered all the possible sources of information. We call it the DoJR Record Type Taxonomy, but you can simply refer to it as the Checklist. We included definitions for all the record types and listed synonyms for the names of record types. Put it to work for your research!

Are There More?

 

Do know about a record type that is not included? Let us know!

WEREN'T ALL THE RECORDS DESTROYED?

All the records were not destroyed. In fact, more than 350 types of records are available to help researchers discover their Jewish ancestors. Many of these are unique to the Jewish experience. We have organized them into 10 major categories.

LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED

We have created a Master Checklist of all the record types — a great reference tool to ensure you have considered all the possible sources of information. We call it the DoJR Record Type Taxonomy, but you can simply refer to it as the Checklist. We included definitions for all the record types and listed synonyms for the names of record types. Put it to work for your research!

Are There More?

 

Do know about a record type that is not included? Let us know!

SEARCH THE Master Checklist

Tips for Using the Master Checklist
  • SEARCH: Use the search box at the top right of the Checklist to enter any keyword(s). The match will find records where all the keywords are found, in any column including the Descriptions.
  • FILTER: The full Checklist can be filtered using the 3 dropdown boxes above the Checklist. Filter selections will show only the selected Category(ies), Sub-Category(ies), and or Preferred or Synonym record type names. More than one filtering selection can be made under Category, Sub-Category, or Preferred or Synonym by opening the dropdown to select each choice. To delete a selection, click on the term under the dropdown.
  • PREFERRED OR SYNONYM: A Preferred Record Type Name is a primary name. Some Preferred Record Type Names have Synonyms. Synonyms are aliases (alternate names) for a Preferred Record Type Name and will share the same Description.
  • SORT: In the blue heading row, use the up and down arrows in each column to sort the records by that column in ascending or descending order.
  • SHOW ENTRIES: Use the dropdown at the top left of the Checklist to display more entries at a time.
  • VERSION: This Master Checklist is Version 2.0 last updated 30 Jan 2022.
CATEGORYSUB-CATEGORYRECORD TYPE NAMEPREFERRED OR SYNONYMDESCRIPTION
Vital EventsBirthBirth AnnouncementsPreferredWritten announcements of the birth of a child; (originally) one published in a newspaper in a section devoted to announcements of births, deaths, marriages, etc.; (later also) one sent to family and friends, posted on social media, etc.
Vital EventsBirthBirth NoticesSynonymWritten announcements of the birth of a child; (originally) one published in a newspaper in a section devoted to announcements of births, deaths, marriages, etc.; (later also) one sent to family and friends, posted on social media, etc.
Vital EventsBirthBirth CertificatesPreferredDocuments the birth of a person. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth. May include name, sex, date, place and parents.
Vital EventsBirthLegal Birth Extract RecordsSynonymDocuments the birth of a person. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth. May include name, sex, date, place and parents.
Vital EventsBirthBirth RegistersPreferredOfficial logs of births either within a governmental jurisdiction (civil record) or within a religious community (e.g. synagogue, church, or parish).
Vital EventsBirthDelayed Birth RecordsPreferredBirths recorded more than one year after the date of birth. May have been many years after birth if jurisdiction at birth did not require recording, or may record a live birth when no physician was present. It may also be used to document the birth of an immigrant who has no original documentation.
Vital EventsBirthBirth Protocol Sworn RecordsSynonymBirths recorded more than one year after the date of birth. May have been many years after birth if jurisdiction at birth did not require recording, or may record a live birth when no physician was present. It may also be used to document the birth of an immigrant who has no original documentation.
Vital EventsBirthMohel BooksPreferredRecords kept by a mohel, a person who performs the Jewish rite of circumcision, listing the name and birthdate of each baby circumcised, along with the father's name. In some cases a certificate of circumsion is issued that may include: names and addresses of the mohel, parents of the baby and the baby's date of birth.
Vital EventsBirthCircumcision RegistersSynonymRecords kept by a mohel, a person who performs the Jewish rite of circumcision, listing the name and birthdate of each baby circumcised, along with the father's name. In some cases a certificate of circumsion is issued that may include: names and addresses of the mohel, parents of the baby and the baby's date of birth.
Vital EventsMarriageKetubotPreferredDocuments that are the formal contract in a Jewish religious marriage that specify financial protection for the wife in the event that the husband dies or divorces her. A Ketubah contains the date and location of the marriage, the name of the rabbi, names of witnesses and in most cases includes the bride's and groom's parents names.
Vital EventsMarriageKetubahsSynonymDocuments that are the formal contract in a Jewish religious marriage that specify financial protection for the wife in the event that the husband dies or divorces her. A Ketubah contains the date and location of the marriage, the name of the rabbi, names of witnesses and in most cases includes the bride's and groom's parents names.
Vital EventsMarriageMarriage AnnouncementsPreferredNotices that inform the community of a marriage, issued before or after the marriage takes place. Often they are written articles in newspapers or newsletters. In recent years these announcements may be mailed or posted on social media.
Vital EventsMarriageWedding AnnouncementsSynonymNotices that inform the community of a marriage, issued before or after the marriage takes place. Often they are written articles in newspapers or newsletters. In recent years these announcements may be mailed or posted on social media.
Vital EventsMarriageMarriage BannsPreferredNotices that inform the community of an impending marriage. They are intended to solicit feedback from the community as to whether such a marriage may be illegal because of prior undissolved marriages or undisclosed familial relationships.
Vital EventsMarriageMarriage CertificatesPreferredDocuments that certify a civil marriage has taken place. They typically contain date and place of the ceremony, and are signed by the parties, witnesses, and officiant.
Vital EventsMarriageMarriage LicensesPreferredDocuments issued by a government authority that permits the marriage officiant and the couple to proceed with the marriage.
Vital EventsMarriageNotary Prenuptial AgreementsPreferredDocuments of an agreement made by a couple and/or their families before they marry concerning the ownership of their respective assets should the marriage fail. In some jurisdictions, the agreement is notarized and filed.
Vital EventsMarriagePrenuptial AgreementsSynonymDocuments of an agreement made by a couple and/or their families before they marry concerning the ownership of their respective assets should the marriage fail. In some jurisdictions, the agreement is notarized and filed.
Vital EventsMarriageAnniversary AnnouncementsPreferredPublished announcements of marital anniversaries (i.e. 50th Anniversary) of persons that list information about children and grandchildren, etc.
Vital EventsMarriageCivil MarriagesPreferredA legally recongnized civil marriage may take place on a different date than the religious marriage. In some countries a civil marriage must take place prior to a religious ceremony.
Vital EventsMarriageCivil WeddingsSynonymA legally recongnized civil marriage may take place on a different date than the religious marriage. In some countries a civil marriage must take place prior to a religious ceremony.
Vital EventsMarriageMarriage Authorisation RecordsPreferredThese record details of marriages due to be performed by synagogues that were members of the United Synagogue. They may include names, information about fathers, the groom's brothers and hometowns in English and Yiddish.
Vital EventsDivorceDivorce AnnouncementsPreferredNotices that inform the community that a couple has legally and officially terminated their marriage. Often published in newspapers or newsletters.
Vital EventsDivorceDivorce CertificatesPreferredCivil documents certifying that a marriage has been dissolved. They typically contain the date and place of the divorce and the former couple's names.
Vital EventsDivorceMarriage Dissolution CertificatesSynonymCivil documents certifying that a marriage has been dissolved. They typically contain the date and place of the divorce and the former couple's names.
Vital EventsDivorceGetsPreferredDocuments in Jewish religious law which effectuates a divorce between a Jewish couple
Vital EventsDivorceJewish Divorce RecordsSynonymDocuments in Jewish religious law which effectuates a divorce between a Jewish couple
Vital EventsDeathBurial RecordsPreferredRecords related to the burial of an individual that may include: the location of the burial plot for the deceased, information about the burial (name of the deceased and date of burial), name of the funeral home, contact information for the individual and/or society arranging the burial and contact information for the individual responsible for maintaining the grave, if applicable. Some cemeteries maintain additional information about the deceased.
Vital EventsDeathBurial AuthorisationsSynonymRecords related to the burial of an individual that may include: the location of the burial plot for the deceased, information about the burial (name of the deceased and date of burial), name of the funeral home, contact information for the individual and/or society arranging the burial and contact information for the individual responsible for maintaining the grave, if applicable. Some cemeteries maintain additional information about the deceased.
Vital EventsDeathBurial Transit RecordPreferredPermits or notices regarding transport of bodies for burial or other disposition, often in another jurisdiction. In the United States they are typically issued by the local department of health and may include the name of the deceased, and date of transport and/or date of death, and possibly other information about the deceased.
Vital EventsDeathTransport for BurialSynonymPermits or notices regarding transport of bodies for burial or other disposition, often in another jurisdiction. In the United States they are typically issued by the local department of health and may include the name of the deceased, and date of transport and/or date of death, and possibly other information about the deceased.
Vital EventsDeathCemetery StonesPreferredInscriptions on traditional Jewish tombstones show the name of the deceased and the given name of the deceased's father (and sometimes mother), as well as the date of death. They often show the age or date of birth.
Vital EventsDeathDeath CertificatesPreferredOfficial records that certify the death of an individual. Typically include date, time, and location of death; cause of death; name of witnesses; and burial information.
Vital EventsDeathKodesPreferredDocuments that specify gifts stipulated in last wills, destined for the community, for the school, for the poor, for the Holy Land, for freeing of prisoners, or occasionally for buying material objects such as Flemish candeliers. They were recorded from 1639 throughout centuries by the Jews in the Netherlands. Kodes may not document the precise date of death, but may include family relations and instructions for the saying of the escava.
Vital EventsDeathMember DeathsPreferredNotices of an indivdual's passing or obituaries published in the records of a membership organization to which the deceased had belonged.
Vital EventsDeathObituariesPreferredPublished or unpublished death announcements. A particular obituary may be a simple death notice or an elaborate biography of the deceased. Obituaries usually give the name of the deceased and the death or burial date. They may also contain information such as the birth date, marriage date, names of parents and spouse, children, occupation, education, and the location of living family members at the time the obituary was written.
Vital EventsDeathWillsPreferredDocuments that specify to whom one's assets shall be disbursed after death. Wills can provide family names and relationships. Wills may be witnessed, notarized, and on file and or recorded in a governmental court office.
Vital EventsDeathYahrzeit RecordsPreferredLists or synagogue wall plaques contributed by congregation members to remember a relative's death anniversary. Yahrzeit dates are usually calculated using the Hebrew calendar.
Vital EventsDeathYahrzeit PlaquesSynonymLists or synagogue wall plaques contributed by congregation members to remember a relative's death anniversary. Yahrzeit dates are usually calculated using the Hebrew calendar.
Vital EventsDeathDeath AnnouncementsPreferredPublished notices of the death of an individual. Usually include basic biographical information, and next of kin. May also include achievements, and whether or not the person was a veteran.
Vital EventsDeathDeath NoticesSynonymPublished notices of the death of an individual. Usually include basic biographical information, and next of kin. May also include achievements, and whether or not the person was a veteran.
Vital EventsOther Vital RecordsAdoption RecordsPreferredRecords of information related to a child's adoption, including information about the: child's medical and social history; adoption decree; name and sex of the child; name of the birth mother; name of the adoption agency, orphanage or hospital; name of an attorney; photographs; and original and amended birth certificate.
Vital EventsOther Vital RecordsChurch RecordsPreferredDocuments that churches have kept about their congregations recording information about christenings, baptisms, marriages, and burials. Information includes name(s) of the individual(s) involved, date and location of the event, and the clergyman's name. May include parents' names, names of witnesses to an event, and individual's or family's place of residence. In some areas, Jewish life events were recorded in church records.
Vital EventsOther Vital RecordsCivil RegistrationsPreferredThe continuous, permanent, compulsory and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events pertaining to the population as provided through decree or regulation in accordance with the legal requirements of a country. Civil registration is carried out primarily for the purpose of establishing the legal documents required by law. These records are also a main source of vital statistics. Vital events that are typically recorded on the register include live birth, death, foetal death, name, change of name, marriage, divorce, annulment of marriage, judicial separation of marriage, adoption, legitimization and recognition.
Institution RecordsSynagogueKetubotPreferredDocuments that are the formal contract in a Jewish religious marriage that specify financial protection for the wife in the event that the husband dies or divorces her. A Ketubah contains the date and location of the marriage, the name of the rabbi, names of witnesses and in most cases includes the bride's and groom's parents names.
Institution RecordsSynagogueKetubahsSynonymDocuments that are the formal contract in a Jewish religious marriage that specify financial protection for the wife in the event that the husband dies or divorces her. A Ketubah contains the date and location of the marriage, the name of the rabbi, names of witnesses and in most cases includes the bride's and groom's parents names.
Institution RecordsSynagogueMember DeathsPreferredNotices of an indivdual's passing or obituaries published in the records of a membership organization to which the deceased had belonged.
Institution RecordsSynagogueYahrzeit RecordsPreferredLists or synagogue wall plaques contributed by congregation members to remember a relative's death anniversary. Yahrzeit dates are usually calculated using the Hebrew calendar.
Institution RecordsSynagogueYahrzeit PlaquesSynonymLists or synagogue wall plaques contributed by congregation members to remember a relative's death anniversary. Yahrzeit dates are usually calculated using the Hebrew calendar.
Institution RecordsSynagogueBar / Bat MitzvahsPreferredRecords of bar mitzvahs or bat mitzvahs that occurred within the congregation. This Jewish milestone is reached when the child reaches the age of religious responsibilities; for boys when they turn 13 years old and for girls when they turn 12 years old. Synagogue records may contain the names of the boy or girl as well as the date of the occasion (from which a date of birth can be approximated).
Institution RecordsSynagogueBirth / Marriage / Death Registers - SouzaPreferredRecords that the synagogue maintains concerning a congregant's and their family's key life events including: birth, circumcision, bar and bat mitzvah, marriage and death.
Institution RecordsSynagogueBonds - Registro de obrigaconsPreferredFInancial records of a synagogue showing the bonds owned or administered by the synagogue or individuals..
Institution RecordsSynagogueButcher Tax RecordsPreferredList of weekly taxes collected from butchers.
Institution RecordsSynagogueLivro da conta dos carniseyrosSynonymList of weekly taxes collected from butchers.
Institution RecordsSynagogueCashbooks - Livro da caixaPreferredRecords of a congregation's financial transactions.
Institution RecordsSynagogueCorrespondencePreferredDocuments of communications by exchange of letters, emails or texts between an organization and its members or external communications with other individuals and organizations.
Institution RecordsSynagogueDecisions and Regulations - EscamothPreferredRegisters of decisions. Each decision is listed separately without reference to discussions, and signed by the mahamad (council of elders in a Sephardic community). Registers include tax lists, lists of the poor, lists of donations, lists of signatures (under political decisions), copies of wills, appointments of board members, treasurers, administrators and staff, donations (usually on the occasion of deaths intended for the saying of kaddish), convictions for offenses, banning of members, and wills.
Institution RecordsSynagogueDonations Mandatory - FintasPreferredRecords of fintas (voluntary donations) collected by the synagogue.
Institution RecordsSynagogueDonations Voluntary - PromessasPreferredRecords of voluntary donations that are collected in the synagogue (notes of amounts would be noted down each Shabbat).
Institution RecordsSynagogueDotar Files (Pautas)PreferredApplications and lists of poor Sephardic orphaned girls and unmarried women who were entered in a lottery for dowries by the Dotar. The girls and women are listed along with the name and relationship of a relative who assigned them as "poor."
Institution RecordsSynagogueDowry RecordsSynonymApplications and lists of poor Sephardic orphaned girls and unmarried women who were entered in a lottery for dowries by the Dotar. The girls and women are listed along with the name and relationship of a relative who assigned them as "poor."
Institution RecordsSynagoguePoor Sephardic Orphans and SpinstersSynonymApplications and lists of poor Sephardic orphaned girls and unmarried women who were entered in a lottery for dowries by the Dotar. The girls and women are listed along with the name and relationship of a relative who assigned them as "poor."
Institution RecordsSynagogueDraft of Outgoing Documents - Borrardor de cartasPreferredDrafts of official documents related to members of the congregation, regarding membership or citizenship.
Institution RecordsSynagogueEstate Registries - Livro de memoriaPreferredRegister of notes concerning the administration of estates.
Institution RecordsSynagogueEvent RecordsPreferredDocuments that provide information about important milestone, social, and educational events and programs in the history of the organization, including events from before the founding of the organization.
Institution RecordsSynagogueFinancial Records - Livro grandePreferredGeneral ledgers of a synagogue's financial transactions.
Institution RecordsSynagogueKaddish ListsPreferredLists of people for whom Kaddish is to be said.
Institution RecordsSynagogueMarriage Dispensations for Blood Relatives - DispensacoensPreferredDocuments relating to dispensations granted by the States of Holland in cases of marriages between cousins. These marriages were forbidden but for the Sephardim a dispensation could be granted.
Institution RecordsSynagogueMembership Lists - Livro de irmaosPreferredAdministrative records of the members of the congregation
Institution RecordsSynagogueMinutes - Livro de segredosPreferredMinutes of the presidents' meetings
Institution RecordsSynagogueOutgoing Documents - Copiardor de cartasPreferredCopies of outgoing documents.
Institution RecordsSynagoguePhoto CollectionsPreferredPhotographs that are collected and kept by individuals, organizations, communities, the military, Yad Vashem and many other sources. Includes photographs posted on social media.
Institution RecordsSynagogueRegisters for Escava - Livro das ascabothPreferredLists of names of people for whom escava (prayer for the rest of a deceased person's soul) is to be said, generally on the Sabbath and/or on Yom Kippur.
Institution RecordsSynagogueRegisters of Cemetery Decisions - Livro de Bet HaimPreferredListing of cemetery burials, with names, dates, people present, and contributions offered. Some records also include decisions about how the cemetery is to be operated.
Institution RecordsSynagogueRegisters of Expenditures for the Poor - Livro longo de cuatro contasPreferredRegisters of congregational expenditures for the poor.
Institution RecordsSynagogueRegisters of Travel Money for Emigrees - Registro dos despachosPreferredLists of distributions to members for purposes of emigration.
Institution RecordsSynagogueRegisters of Wills - Livro de testamentosPreferredRecords of the administration of wills of members of the congregation
Institution RecordsSynagogueSalaries and Annuities - Livro longoPreferredRecords of salaries and other periodic payments.
Institution RecordsSynagogueLivro Longo De Cuatro ContasSynonymRecords of salaries and other periodic payments.
Institution RecordsSynagogueSynagogue Cemetery RecordsPreferredRecords of synagogue members' use of the synagogue cemetery. Congregations with a large membership usually maintain their own cemeteries and burial registers, while smaller congregations reserve a section within other cemeteries. Information may include: plot books and maps, plot location of the deceased, name, age, marriage information, date and place of birth, who paid for the burial, and names of people (often relatives) buried in the same plot.
Institution RecordsSynagogueTaxes - ImpostasPreferredRecords of taxes collected by the Synagogue.
Institution RecordsSynagogueBar / Bat Mitzvah AnnouncementsPreferredAnnouncements of Barmitzvahs (and I suppose Batmitzvahs) in newspapers.
Institution RecordsSynagogueChartersPreferredCharter and by-laws of a synagogue.
Institution RecordsSynagogueCommemorative PlaquesPreferredPlaques on the walls of shuls to commemorate people.
Institution RecordsSynagogueCommunity CookbooksPreferredBooks of recipes produced by Sisterhoods and other societies/clubs/organizations. They also include cookbooks produced by newspapers containing recipes from their readers.
Institution RecordsSynagogueEvent ProgramsPreferredPrinted sequences of the events and the main participants in a religious service, recital, graduation, etc.
Institution RecordsSynagogueMarriage Authorisation RecordsPreferredThese record details of marriages due to be performed by synagogues that were members of the United Synagogue. They may include names, information about fathers, the groom's brothers and hometowns in English and Yiddish.
Institution RecordsSynagogueMembership PlaquesPreferredWall plaques listing founding members, donors and officers of the synagogue, sisterhood, brotherhood, Hebrew School, or other organizations.
Institution RecordsSynagogueReligious School RecordsPreferredClasses or weekend educational studies that are specific to a temple or synagogue for children in pursuit of Bar Mitzvah or Confirmation.
Institution RecordsSynagogueHebrew School RecordsSynonymClasses or weekend educational studies that are specific to a temple or synagogue for children in pursuit of Bar Mitzvah or Confirmation.
Institution RecordsSynagogueSynagogue Election RecordsPreferredRecords of the candidates for the synagogue election, eligible voters, their votes and final results
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsMohel BooksPreferredRecords kept by a mohel, a person who performs the Jewish rite of circumcision, listing the name and birthdate of each baby circumcised, along with the father's name. In some cases a certificate of circumsion is issued that may include: names and addresses of the mohel, parents of the baby and the baby's date of birth.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsCircumcision RegistersSynonymRecords kept by a mohel, a person who performs the Jewish rite of circumcision, listing the name and birthdate of each baby circumcised, along with the father's name. In some cases a certificate of circumsion is issued that may include: names and addresses of the mohel, parents of the baby and the baby's date of birth.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsAsylum RecordsPreferredRecords of patients, classified as insane or lunatic. Individuals were placed in asylums when they were deemed under contemporary definitions to be: of intermittent not sound memory and understanding; natural fools from birth, in debt, exhibiting anti-social behavior. Many records of asylums are kept in local archives, especially those of patients; most patient files have been destroyed.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsLunacy RecordsSynonymRecords of patients, classified as insane or lunatic. Individuals were placed in asylums when they were deemed under contemporary definitions to be: of intermittent not sound memory and understanding; natural fools from birth, in debt, exhibiting anti-social behavior. Many records of asylums are kept in local archives, especially those of patients; most patient files have been destroyed.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsPrison RecordsPreferredRecords of a place designated by law for the keeping of persons held in custody under process of law, or under lawful arrest, at any level or kind of jurisdiction.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsCorrectional Institution RecordsSynonymRecords of a place designated by law for the keeping of persons held in custody under process of law, or under lawful arrest, at any level or kind of jurisdiction.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsMedical RecordsPreferredRecords of a patient's clinical data and medical history, such as demographics, diagnoses, medications, treatment plans, and test results. Accesss is often restricted even if the person is deceased.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsMedical ChartsSynonymRecords of a patient's clinical data and medical history, such as demographics, diagnoses, medications, treatment plans, and test results. Accesss is often restricted even if the person is deceased.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsOrphanage RecordsPreferredRecords from an orphanage, a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families. Information for each child may include name, birth date and places, parents' names, nationality, how received, township, when admitted, and to whom indentured.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsPoorhouse RecordsPreferredRecords from a facility to support and provide housing for the dependent or needy. Information may include name, sex, race, marital status, address of last residence, place of birth, citizenship status, occupation, religion, medical condition, parents' names, occupation, cause of dependence, etc.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsPoor Farm RecordsSynonymRecords from a facility to support and provide housing for the dependent or needy. Information may include name, sex, race, marital status, address of last residence, place of birth, citizenship status, occupation, religion, medical condition, parents' names, occupation, cause of dependence, etc.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsWorkhouse RecordsSynonymRecords from a facility to support and provide housing for the dependent or needy. Information may include name, sex, race, marital status, address of last residence, place of birth, citizenship status, occupation, religion, medical condition, parents' names, occupation, cause of dependence, etc.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsSanitarium RecordsPreferredRecords from a facility where people with chronic illnesses or a need to convalesce are treated. Records for each patient may include name, case file number, address, birthdate, medical information, and admission and discharge dates. Frequently protected by privacy laws, even after the patient is deceased.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsSanatorium RecordsSynonymRecords from a facility where people with chronic illnesses or a need to convalesce are treated. Records for each patient may include name, case file number, address, birthdate, medical information, and admission and discharge dates. Frequently protected by privacy laws, even after the patient is deceased.
Institution RecordsOther InstitutionsChevra Kadisha RecordsPreferredRecords of a local Jewish burial society, known as the chevra kadisha or 'holy society.' Records usually consist of names and dates of death and/or burial of the deceased, and may include the names of the persons performing tahara, preparation of the body for burial.
Institution RecordsSchoolEvent RecordsPreferredDocuments that provide information about important milestone, social, and educational events and programs in the history of the organization, including events from before the founding of the organization.
Institution RecordsSchoolPhoto CollectionsPreferredPhotographs that are collected and kept by individuals, organizations, communities, the military, Yad Vashem and many other sources. Includes photographs posted on social media.
Institution RecordsSchoolAdministrative RecordsPreferredDocuments kept by school authorities that may include: admission and withdrawals registers, attendance registers, class timetables, health records, individual student cumulative record cards, disciplinary records, transfer and leaving certificates, copies of birth certificates, names of parents and siblings and photos.
Institution RecordsSchoolCertificates and DiplomasPreferredDocuments that certify a person that has successfully completed a particular course of study. Typically includes name and date of completion or graduation..
Institution RecordsSchoolClass RecordsPreferredDocuments kept by a class teacher or professor that may include the following: names of students, attendance registers, examination results and disciplinary records
Institution RecordsSchoolReunion Attendee ListsPreferredLists of the names of classmates of a specific graduation year of a high school or university. They may include the addresses or contact information for the former students.
Institution RecordsSchoolSchool YearbooksPreferredBooks published yearly as a report or summary of statistics or facts that may document names of a school's affiliated persons. It is a publication that serves as a written and photographic record of the year's activities, its students, and teachers. These books can exist at any level: elementary, secondary (high school), or university.
Institution RecordsSchoolEvent ProgramsPreferredPrinted sequences of the events and the main participants in a religious service, recital, graduation, etc.
Institution RecordsSchoolReligious School RecordsPreferredClasses or weekend educational studies that are specific to a temple or synagogue for children in pursuit of Bar Mitzvah or Confirmation.
Institution RecordsSchoolHebrew School RecordsSynonymClasses or weekend educational studies that are specific to a temple or synagogue for children in pursuit of Bar Mitzvah or Confirmation.
Institution RecordsSchoolSchool NewspapersPreferredNewspaper often written by students and distributed by school
Institution RecordsSchoolWar Memorial PlaquesPreferredVisual displays of the name of individuals, often alumni of an educational instutition or residents of a particular locality, who have died in armed conflict. These memorials, which may be carved on a wall or monument, usually include names and dates of death.
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentCraftsmen RecordsPreferredRecords of an association that may include names of skilled laborers, craftsmen, and apprenticeships, ages or dates of birth, places of origin and residence, family relationships, and types of skills to be learned. It may also include names of persons with whom the apprentice is indentured. Some guild records also list family members and dates of birth and marriages
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentGuild RecordsSynonymRecords of an association that may include names of skilled laborers, craftsmen, and apprenticeships, ages or dates of birth, places of origin and residence, family relationships, and types of skills to be learned. It may also include names of persons with whom the apprentice is indentured. Some guild records also list family members and dates of birth and marriages
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentMerchant RecordsSynonymRecords of an association that may include names of skilled laborers, craftsmen, and apprenticeships, ages or dates of birth, places of origin and residence, family relationships, and types of skills to be learned. It may also include names of persons with whom the apprentice is indentured. Some guild records also list family members and dates of birth and marriages
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentMerchant Marine RecordsPreferredRecords that profile civilian mariners, during peacetime and war. Information typically includes the seaman's: name and address, place and date of birth, vessels served on, status, identification number, renewal and discharge information, certifications and licenses obtained, photographs, birth certificates, and other documents related to union membership.
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentOfficials and EmployeesPreferredRecords that list the staff of a business / corporation or governmental jurisdiction and their roles within the organization. Officers in a business / corporation are employees that have authority over others. Officers in a governmental jurisdiction are appointed or elected.
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentProfessional RegistersPreferredRecords that list the members of an organization created to further a particular profession/occupation. Information may include the members' name, professional qualification, and education.
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentUnion RecordsPreferredRecords related to organized labor unions, including membership records, correspondence, reports, legal files, retirement records, etc.
Institution RecordsBusiness & EmploymentEmployment Pension RecordsPreferredDocuments related to a retirement plan that requires an employer to make contributions to a pool of funds set aside for a worker's future benefit. The pool of funds is invested on the employee's behalf, and the earnings on the investments generate income to the worker upon retirement.
Institution RecordsCommunal OrganizationCommunal Jewish Organization RecordsPreferredRecords of the many Jewish organizations that tend to social, health, wellbeing, and overall functioning of a local Jewish community. They may consist of briefs, conference proceedings, correspondence, legal documents, memoranda, minutes of meetings, printed materials, reports, membership records, resolutions, statements, studies, and surveys.
Institution RecordsCommunal OrganizationJewish Historical Society RecordsPreferredJewish historical societies generally collect information about the Jewish community in a particular area. They may hold a wide variety of records, including records of other institutions in their geographic area, and personal or family archives. Many societies have books and manuscripts about Jews that may be difficult to find in libraries and archives, and many publish historical periodicals.
Institution RecordsCommunal OrganizationShareholder ListsPreferredLists of shareholders in a variety of enterprises and business. A shareholder is 'one that holds or owns a share in property.' In the context of 19th and 20th century Jewish life, shares were often held in Jewish colonization and agricultural colonies, industry, trading companies, credit unions and banks, cooperatives, and more. The register may include each person's name, address, and the number of shares owned, usually the price and date paid for shares.
Institution RecordsSocietyMember DeathsPreferredNotices of an indivdual's passing or obituaries published in the records of a membership organization to which the deceased had belonged.
Institution RecordsSocietyCorrespondencePreferredDocuments of communications by exchange of letters, emails or texts between an organization and its members or external communications with other individuals and organizations.
Institution RecordsSocietyEvent RecordsPreferredDocuments that provide information about important milestone, social, and educational events and programs in the history of the organization, including events from before the founding of the organization.
Institution RecordsSocietyPhoto CollectionsPreferredPhotographs that are collected and kept by individuals, organizations, communities, the military, Yad Vashem and many other sources. Includes photographs posted on social media.
Institution RecordsSocietyCultural Group FilesPreferredDocuments such as membership lists, correspondence, financial records, minutes of meetings, newsletters, photographs of group members and activities recorded by societies that represent interest in a specific cultural group.
Institution RecordsSocietyDonationsPreferredRecords of the receipt of charitable contributions from donors that include the donor name and amount and may include a reason or occasion for the donation.
Institution RecordsSocietyFinancial RecordsPreferredRecords of the organization's financial transactions
Institution RecordsSocietyLandsmanshaften FilesPreferredFiles from a Jewish association of landsleit (ex-residents from the same locale or town) that was organized for social and philanthropic purposes. The Landsmanshaft organizations aided immigrants' transitions from Europe to America and other countries by providing social structure and support to those who arrived in the new country without the family networks and practical skills that had sustained them in Europe. Some landsmanshaften formed burial societies. Toward the end of the 19th and in the beginning of the 20th centuries, they also provided immigrants an introduction to participating in a democracy, through their own meetings and procedures such as voting on officers, holding debates on community issues, and paying dues to support the society. Through the first half of the 20th century, meetings were often conducted and minutes recorded in Yiddish.
Institution RecordsSocietyMeeting MinutesPreferredNotes of meetings that highlight the key issues that are discussed, motions proposed or voted on, and activities.
Institution RecordsSocietyMembership ListsPreferredLists of names of the members of an organization, society, club or similar type of group. May include addresses, telephone numbers, other contact information, positions, titles, etc.
Institution RecordsSocietyNewslettersPreferredBulletins that are issued with regular frequency; include articles about the activities of the organization, topical news items, and sometimes educational items of interest. They are sent to members, prospective members and partners. E-newsletters are delivered electronically via e-mail.
Institution RecordsSocietyPhilanthropic Group FilesPreferredFiles of non-profit entities that utilize donated assets and income to provide social services. Community foundations, endowments and charitable trusts are types of philanthropic organizations. The files may include: donors lists, recipents lists, financial records, meeting minutes, communications, newsletters and correspondence.
Institution RecordsSocietyFoundation FilesSynonymFiles of non-profit entities that utilize donated assets and income to provide social services. Community foundations, endowments and charitable trusts are types of philanthropic organizations. The files may include: donors lists, recipents lists, financial records, meeting minutes, communications, newsletters and correspondence.
Institution RecordsSocietySociety Association FilesPreferredFiles of a society or an association of an organized group of persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. These files may include: membership lists, society by-laws, financial records and correspondence.
Institution RecordsSocietyNGO FilesSynonymFiles of a society or an association of an organized group of persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. These files may include: membership lists, society by-laws, financial records and correspondence.
Institution RecordsSocietyCommunity CookbooksPreferredBooks of recipes produced by Sisterhoods and other societies/clubs/organizations. They also include cookbooks produced by newspapers containing recipes from their readers.
Institution RecordsSocietyEvent ProgramsPreferredPrinted sequences of the events and the main participants in a religious service, recital, graduation, etc.
Institution RecordsSocietyGroup DirectoriesPreferred
Institution RecordsSocietyCommunity DirectoriesSynonymBooks or lists of names and contact information for people in a specific group. Types of community directories include family, neighborhood, religious, alumni, and society/club/organization.
Institution RecordsSocietyMasonic/Fraternal OrdersPreferredRecords related to Masonic and other fraternal orders--membership lists, officer rosters, etc.
Institution RecordsSocietyMembership PlaquesPreferredWall plaques listing founding members, donors and officers of the synagogue, sisterhood, brotherhood, Hebrew School, or other organizations.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeBurial RecordsPreferredRecords related to the burial of an individual that may include: the location of the burial plot for the deceased, information about the burial (name of the deceased and date of burial), name of the funeral home, contact information for the individual and/or society arranging the burial and contact information for the individual responsible for maintaining the grave, if applicable. Some cemeteries maintain additional information about the deceased.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeBurial AuthorisationsSynonymRecords related to the burial of an individual that may include: the location of the burial plot for the deceased, information about the burial (name of the deceased and date of burial), name of the funeral home, contact information for the individual and/or society arranging the burial and contact information for the individual responsible for maintaining the grave, if applicable. Some cemeteries maintain additional information about the deceased.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeCemetery StonesPreferredInscriptions on traditional Jewish tombstones show the name of the deceased and the given name of the deceased's father (and sometimes mother), as well as the date of death. They often show the age or date of birth.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeSynagogue Cemetery RecordsPreferredRecords of synagogue members' use of the synagogue cemetery. Congregations with a large membership usually maintain their own cemeteries and burial registers, while smaller congregations reserve a section within other cemeteries. Information may include: plot books and maps, plot location of the deceased, name, age, marriage information, date and place of birth, who paid for the burial, and names of people (often relatives) buried in the same plot.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeCemetery RecordsPreferredRecords that document the administration, evolution and history of a cemetery that may include: plot books and maps, financial records, plot maintenance levels, societies' plots, family member plots, emloyee / caretaker lists and historical information. For information on the individuals interred at the cemetery, see "Burial Records".
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeFuneral Home RecordsPreferredRecords kept by a funeral home that may contain: a list of the surviving relatives, the cemetery name where the deceased will be buried, notes about the deceased, a copy of the obituary along with the names of newspapers where the obituary will be published, and the names of people participating in a memorial service.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeBurial Society Entrance PlaquesPreferredPlaques posted at the entrances to cemetery sections listing society name, officers, members, date of establishment, or other institutional information.
Institution RecordsCemetery / Funeral HomeChevra Kadisha RecordsPreferredRecords of a local Jewish burial society, known as the chevra kadisha or 'holy society.' Records usually consist of names and dates of death and/or burial of the deceased, and may include the names of the persons performing tahara, preparation of the body for burial.
Institution RecordsRabbinicalGetsPreferredDocuments in Jewish religious law which effectuates a divorce between a Jewish couple
Institution RecordsRabbinicalJewish Divorce RecordsSynonymDocuments in Jewish religious law which effectuates a divorce between a Jewish couple
Institution RecordsRabbinicalRecords of Conversion (Giyurim)PreferredRecords pertaining to the conversion of an individual from another religion to Judaism.
Historical EventsInquisitionSentencing RecordsPreferredDocuments of sentences and their implementation. Sentences were communicated in notarized formats including certificates or brief sealed notices. If the sentence included confiscations of property, there can be many documents detailing the properties to be seized and their disposition.
Historical EventsInquisitionInquisition Trial RecordsSynonymDocuments of sentences and their implementation. Sentences were communicated in notarized formats including certificates or brief sealed notices. If the sentence included confiscations of property, there can be many documents detailing the properties to be seized and their disposition.
Historical EventsInquisitionPunishment BooksSynonymDocuments of sentences and their implementation. Sentences were communicated in notarized formats including certificates or brief sealed notices. If the sentence included confiscations of property, there can be many documents detailing the properties to be seized and their disposition.
Historical EventsInquisitionTrial RecordsPreferredDocuments created during the Inquisition contain details on the investigations conducted, names of the accused, and details of their heresy. Some may include family relationships and a detailed descendancy from a converso. Other references to the family may appear in sources such as church, court, and notarial records. These records are difficult to use and are seldom indexed.
Historical EventsHolocaustConcentration Camp FilesPreferredRecords kept by and about facilities that were used for the mass internment of people without trial. Includes information about the camp system, perpetrators, daily life, slave labor, prisioner groups, inmate relations, executions, resistance, public knowledge and liberation.
Historical EventsHolocaustGhetto Names ListsPreferredLists of individuals and families legally forced to reside in and be confined to a specific area.
Historical EventsHolocaustHolocaust Names ListsPreferredLists of victims of the Holocaust and survivors.
Historical EventsHolocaustPages of TestimonyPreferredDocumentation of individuals who perished in the Holocaust and Holocaust survivors. Typically refer to the completed forms that can be searched at Yad Vashem.
Historical EventsHolocaustPogrom FilesPreferredRecords that document large-scale acts of violence against a population. May include information about victims, witnesses, relief applications and administration, minutes of meetings, lists of persons looking for relatives.
Historical EventsHolocaustRecorded TestimoniesPreferredOral or written accounts by witnesses regarding treatment of individual victims or survivors of an organized massacre.
Historical EventsHolocaustAsset ListsPreferredThe asset lists for companies list Include company name, information about what they manufactured, location, and monetary amount of assets seized. For individuals , information may identify bank accounts, real estate, insurance policies, art and other property confiscated.
Historical EventsHolocaustConfiscated Property ListsPreferredInventories of confiscated property prepared by the Nazis
Historical EventsHolocaustDeportation Transport and March NamesPreferredNames of children, women and men who were forced to relocate on foot, vehicles or trains from their home to a ghetto, extermination centers or concentration camps.
Historical EventsHolocaustKindertransport Landing CardsPreferredKindertransport landing cards were issued to children in lieu of passports. They usually contain a photograph of the child, sex, date and place of birth and full names and address of their parents. The Kindertransport was a rescue effort authorized by the British government that saved some 10,000 children from Germany and Austria prior to World War II.
Historical EventsHolocaustRestitution and Compensation RecordsPreferredRecords of the applications for and decisions thereon regarding compensation paid to victims of the Nazis or their heirs for loss of property, livelihoods, imprisonment, etc.
Historical EventsHolocaustStolpersteinePreferredA Stolperstein (literally "stumbling stone") is a paving block-sized concrete cube bearing a brass plate inscribed with the name and life dates of victims of Nazi extermination or persecution, in the last place of residency freely chosen by the deceased before falling victim to the Nazis. Found in more than 20 countries, they are a project of the artist Gunter Demnig, to remind observers of people deported and killed by the Nazis. Indexes are available online.
Historical EventsHolocaustTracing RequestsPreferredAn application to trace a person that her/his whereabouts were not known to the requester
Historical EventsHolocaustTransport ListsPreferredListings of Jews who were taken on railroad cars to concentration camps by date and convoy number.
Historical EventsPersecutionsPogrom FilesPreferredRecords that document large-scale acts of violence against a population. May include information about victims, witnesses, relief applications and administration, minutes of meetings, lists of persons looking for relatives.
Historical EventsPersecutionsRecorded TestimoniesPreferredOral or written accounts by witnesses regarding treatment of individual victims or survivors of an organized massacre.
Historical EventsPersecutionsPersecuted Persons ListsPreferredDocuments that list persecuted people targeted by governments based on their ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, or sexual orientation.
Historical EventsPersecutionsMartyrology RecordsPreferredBook of martyrs, usually from medieval times.
Historical EventsExpulsionsExpulsion RecordsPreferredRecords of populations forced to move due to war or for political reasons.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelBorder Crossing RecordsPreferredDocuments individuals' arrivals into a country from across a border and may contain: full name, place of birth, age and sex, marital status, point of arrival in country, date of arrival, final destination, physical description, individual picture or family picture, purpose in coming, and occupation.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelNations of Landing RecordsPreferredDocuments entries into a country where the immigrants "landed."
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelPassenger ListsPreferredOfficial records of passengers and crew on ships and aircraft arriving to and departing from international ports and airports. Details requested on the forms vary but they typically include the name of the vessel or flight number, departure date, ports of departure and destination, shipmaster, full name, age, gender, physical description, military rank (if any), occupation, birthplace, citizen of what country, and residence. Military transports may include the next of kin, relationships, and address. Later manifests may include visa or passport numbers.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelShip ManifestsSynonymOfficial records of passengers and crew on ships and aircraft arriving to and departing from international ports and airports. Details requested on the forms vary but they typically include the name of the vessel or flight number, departure date, ports of departure and destination, shipmaster, full name, age, gender, physical description, military rank (if any), occupation, birthplace, citizen of what country, and residence. Military transports may include the next of kin, relationships, and address. Later manifests may include visa or passport numbers.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelPassenger Departure ListsSynonymOfficial records of passengers and crew on ships and aircraft arriving to and departing from international ports and airports. Details requested on the forms vary but they typically include the name of the vessel or flight number, departure date, ports of departure and destination, shipmaster, full name, age, gender, physical description, military rank (if any), occupation, birthplace, citizen of what country, and residence. Military transports may include the next of kin, relationships, and address. Later manifests may include visa or passport numbers.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelPassenger Arrival ListsSynonymOfficial records of passengers and crew on ships and aircraft arriving to and departing from international ports and airports. Details requested on the forms vary but they typically include the name of the vessel or flight number, departure date, ports of departure and destination, shipmaster, full name, age, gender, physical description, military rank (if any), occupation, birthplace, citizen of what country, and residence. Military transports may include the next of kin, relationships, and address. Later manifests may include visa or passport numbers.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelDeparture RecordsSynonymOfficial records of passengers and crew on ships and aircraft arriving to and departing from international ports and airports. Details requested on the forms vary but they typically include the name of the vessel or flight number, departure date, ports of departure and destination, shipmaster, full name, age, gender, physical description, military rank (if any), occupation, birthplace, citizen of what country, and residence. Military transports may include the next of kin, relationships, and address. Later manifests may include visa or passport numbers.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelAliyah DocumentsPreferredOfficial records of both legal and illegal immigrants to Palestine and Israel, from 1919-1974, including Youth Aliyah. Records are usually in Hebrew and contain first and last name, age, birth country, arrival date, and conveyance. May also include gender, marital status, citizenship, ethnic group, type of visa, occupation, training, education, names of relatives in Palestine/Israel, names and ages of the accompanying family members, and date of arrival in Palestine/Israel. Most of these files are in Hebrew; however, they also contain documents in English, German, and other languages, according to the correspondents. Current (2021) required documentation includes passport, birth certificate, proof of Judaism, photograph of family members making aliyah, health declaration form, letter of recommendation, and a background check.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelAliyah Passport RecordsSynonymOfficial records of both legal and illegal immigrants to Palestine and Israel, from 1919-1974, including Youth Aliyah. Records are usually in Hebrew and contain first and last name, age, birth country, arrival date, and conveyance. May also include gender, marital status, citizenship, ethnic group, type of visa, occupation, training, education, names of relatives in Palestine/Israel, names and ages of the accompanying family members, and date of arrival in Palestine/Israel. Most of these files are in Hebrew; however, they also contain documents in English, German, and other languages, according to the correspondents. Current (2021) required documentation includes passport, birth certificate, proof of Judaism, photograph of family members making aliyah, health declaration form, letter of recommendation, and a background check.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelExpulsion RecordsPreferredRecords of populations forced to move due to war or for political reasons.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsTravelKindertransport Landing CardsPreferredKindertransport landing cards were issued to children in lieu of passports. They usually contain a photograph of the child, sex, date and place of birth and full names and address of their parents. The Kindertransport was a rescue effort authorized by the British government that saved some 10,000 children from Germany and Austria prior to World War II.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsAssistanceRelief and Aid Society RecordsPreferredDocuments of organizations providing food, material, legal, immigration, housing, employment, language and other assistance. May contain files on persons receiving assistance. May contain correspondence, minutes, food distribution lists, ledgers, financial statements, receipt books, records of donors, list of subscribers to the society, by-laws of society.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsAssistanceDisplaced Person RecordsPreferredRecords and files from displaced persons (DP) camps and centers run by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in Germany, Austria, and Italy from 1945 to 1957. Official and informal records include continually updated registration cards with final disposition; files of displaced persons, children and missing persons; residence and emigration information; lists of liberated former persecutees; child tracing; death marches; photos of life in DP camps, marriage licenses and ketubot (marriage contracts); newspapers; and other political, social and cultural activities of those living in DP camps.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsAssistanceJewish Immigrant Bank RecordsPreferredRecords of private banks that sold ship tickets to specific immigrant communities and recorded the sale of tickets in ledgers. Information includes name and address of the ticket purchaser, the individual(s) for whom tickets were purchased, the name of the steamship line, fees, and travel itinerary.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsAssistanceEthnic/Immigrant Bank Passage Order Book IndexesSynonymRecords of private banks that sold ship tickets to specific immigrant communities and recorded the sale of tickets in ledgers. Information includes name and address of the ticket purchaser, the individual(s) for whom tickets were purchased, the name of the steamship line, fees, and travel itinerary.
Emigration / Immigration RecordsAssistanceRefugee Hostel RegistriesPreferredLists of people in temporary residences for refugees.
Population and ResidencyResidencyCity DirectoriesPreferredAlphabetical lists of residents of a particular area listing the names of the heads of households, their addresses, and occupational information. Generally created before telephone books. May contain aditional information.
Population and ResidencyResidencyLocal DirectoriesSynonymAlphabetical lists of residents of a particular area listing the names of the heads of households, their addresses, and occupational information. Generally created before telephone books. May contain aditional information.
Population and ResidencyResidencyArea DirectoriesSynonymAlphabetical lists of residents of a particular area listing the names of the heads of households, their addresses, and occupational information. Generally created before telephone books. May contain aditional information.
Population and ResidencyResidencyLocal Tax RecordsPreferredTax Assessors', Treasurers', and Recorders' office records. Examples include deeds, mortgages, assessment data, tax details, and parcel maps. 18th and 19th century Eastern European Tax Lists generally list the family name, first name, and father's name of all heads of households in the community. May include additional information about other family members. Many indicate the ages and dates of death. Some indicate profession or are specifically compiled based on profession like Merchant Lists or Craftsmen and Guild Lists.
Population and ResidencyResidencyManorial RecordsPreferredCourt rolls, surveys, maps, documents and books relating to the boundaries, wastes, customs or courts of a manor.
Population and ResidencyResidencyPhone BooksPreferredListings of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory.
Population and ResidencyResidencyTown RecordsPreferredRecords kept by town clerks/officials. These records may contain information about births, marriages, deaths, burials, appointments, oaths of allegiance, land records, military enrollments, mortgages, name changes, care of the poor, school records, surveys, tax lists, town meeting minutes, and voter registrations. Varies by location and date.
Population and ResidencyResidencyVoting RegistersPreferredOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyElectoral RollsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyElection RegistersSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyState Duma ElectorsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyRabbi ElectorsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyMunicipal ElectorsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyResidents ListsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyElectors ListsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
Population and ResidencyResidencyGroup DirectoriesPreferred
Population and ResidencyResidencyCommunity DirectoriesSynonymBooks or lists of names and contact information for people in a specific group. Types of community directories include family, neighborhood, religious, alumni, and society/club/organization.
Population and ResidencyResidencyLetters of ProtectionPreferredLetters conveying the right to reside in a certain town for a certain number of years in exchange for the payment of an annual fee
Population and ResidencyResidencySchutzbriefenSynonymLetters conveying the right to reside in a certain town for a certain number of years in exchange for the payment of an annual fee
Population and ResidencyResidencyBooks of Non-Permanent ResidentsPreferredRegisters of people living in a place other than their official place of residence.
Population and ResidencyResidencyBooks of Permanent ResidentsPreferredRegisters of people according to their official place of residence, whether or not they actually resided in that place. Usually organized by address, entries include surname, given name, names of parents, age, place of birth, civil status, and religion, and occupation. Women who married a permanent resident were recorded at the residence of the husband, as were children born to them. The Books may be indexed by name.
Population and ResidencyResidencyInternal passportsPreferredIdentity documents that give individuals permission to live in a place where they were not registered. For example, in the Russian Empire, it was required to register every year in an official place of residence even if a person had settled somewhere else. An internal passport was easier to arrange than a change of official registration before the end of the 19th century. Use of internal passports has varied by country and time period.
Population and ResidencyResidencyInternal migration listsPreferredLists made by the Soviet government to move residents (Jewish and non-Jewish), voluntarily or involuntarily, including refugees during World War II. Lists exist both by the place from which people were evacuated and by where they went.
Population and ResidencyPopulationCensusesPreferredOfficial count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals by household or address.
Population and ResidencyPopulationPopulation Control and Movement RecordsSynonymOfficial count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals by household or address.
Population and ResidencyPopulationRevision ListsPreferredComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
Population and ResidencyPopulationFamily Household ListsSynonymComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
Population and ResidencyPopulationReviski SkaskiSynonymComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
Population and ResidencyPopulationResidency RegistrationSynonymComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
Population and ResidencyPopulationSupplemental Revision ListsPreferredAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
Population and ResidencyPopulationAdditional Revision ListsSynonymAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
Population and ResidencyPopulationInterim Revision ListsSynonymAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
Population and ResidencyPopulationAudit ListsSynonymAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
Population and ResidencySettlerBorder Area RecordsPreferredAdministrative, legislative, and population records documenting residents/settlers in colonies (often agricultural) in border areas of a country.
Population and ResidencySettlerColonization RecordsPreferredRecords and lists documenting settlers in colonies and communes; typically include descriptions of farm lands and livestock.
Population and ResidencySettlerCommune RecordsPreferredRecords and lists documenting administrative, legislative, and population matters for a Jewish religious community.
Population and ResidencySettlerSettler ListsPreferredLists of settlers in a region, often an agricultural colony.
GovernmentCourtDelayed Birth RecordsPreferredBirths recorded more than one year after the date of birth. May have been many years after birth if jurisdiction at birth did not require recording, or may record a live birth when no physician was present. It may also be used to document the birth of an immigrant who has no original documentation.
GovernmentCourtBirth Protocol Sworn RecordsSynonymBirths recorded more than one year after the date of birth. May have been many years after birth if jurisdiction at birth did not require recording, or may record a live birth when no physician was present. It may also be used to document the birth of an immigrant who has no original documentation.
GovernmentCourtAsylum RecordsPreferredRecords of patients, classified as insane or lunatic. Individuals were placed in asylums when they were deemed under contemporary definitions to be: of intermittent not sound memory and understanding; natural fools from birth, in debt, exhibiting anti-social behavior. Many records of asylums are kept in local archives, especially those of patients; most patient files have been destroyed.
GovernmentCourtLunacy RecordsSynonymRecords of patients, classified as insane or lunatic. Individuals were placed in asylums when they were deemed under contemporary definitions to be: of intermittent not sound memory and understanding; natural fools from birth, in debt, exhibiting anti-social behavior. Many records of asylums are kept in local archives, especially those of patients; most patient files have been destroyed.
GovernmentCourtMilitary Pension RecordsPreferredDocumentation of pensions paid to people who have served in the military or to their survivors. Application files may contain supporting information such as names and birth dates of children and spouses, proof of birth or marriage, discharge papers, and depositions from a soldier's friends and family.
GovernmentCourtSentencing RecordsPreferredDocuments of sentences and their implementation. Sentences were communicated in notarized formats including certificates or brief sealed notices. If the sentence included confiscations of property, there can be many documents detailing the properties to be seized and their disposition.
GovernmentCourtInquisition Trial RecordsSynonymDocuments of sentences and their implementation. Sentences were communicated in notarized formats including certificates or brief sealed notices. If the sentence included confiscations of property, there can be many documents detailing the properties to be seized and their disposition.
GovernmentCourtPunishment BooksSynonymDocuments of sentences and their implementation. Sentences were communicated in notarized formats including certificates or brief sealed notices. If the sentence included confiscations of property, there can be many documents detailing the properties to be seized and their disposition.
GovernmentCourtManorial RecordsPreferredCourt rolls, surveys, maps, documents and books relating to the boundaries, wastes, customs or courts of a manor.
GovernmentCourtAbandoned Property ListsPreferredRecords of unclaimed property (interests, money or land) that appears to have been abandoned or seized often during time of war.
GovernmentCourtUnclaimed Property ListsSynonymRecords of unclaimed property (interests, money or land) that appears to have been abandoned or seized often during time of war.
GovernmentCourtCoroner's InquestsPreferredRecords of a legal investigation conducted when a coroner cannot easily determine, through an intitial investigation or post-mortem examination, how, when and where a person died. Evidence is reviewed in a public court hearing before a jury.
GovernmentCourtCriminal CasesPreferredRecords of court proceedings in which the defendant is tried for conduct that is considered to be illegal according to the state’s legislature, or the government. Criminal cases generally begin after the person is arrested and informed of their charges, usually at a hearing known as an indictment. Most criminal cases are tried by a judge in the presence of a jury, and may result in sentences under criminal law. Such sentences could include jail time as well as fines.
GovernmentCourtDebt CasesPreferredRecords of a lawsuit for an amount owed, usually involving a sum of money due to another person, an obligation to deliver goods, or an agreement to perform acertain act, such as returning a favor.
GovernmentCourtFelony RecordsPreferredRecords of a grave crime such as murder or rape, typically punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than one year or by the death penalty.
GovernmentCourtGuardianship RecordsPreferredRecords of the lawful appointment of someone who is charged with and entitled to care for the person of a minor, invalid, or incompetent and his or her interests, such as education, property management and investments.
GovernmentCourtLand and Property RecordsPreferredLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
GovernmentCourtDeedsSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
GovernmentCourtLand GrantsSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
GovernmentCourtMortgagesSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
GovernmentCourtValuation RollsSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
GovernmentCourtProbate RecordsPreferredRecords that document the disposition of a deceased individual's property. When a testament is made, a probate record includes an individual's last will and testament. Usually a probate record includes: the name of the deceased, the deceased's age at the time of death or birth date, property, members of the family, and the last place of residence.
GovernmentCourtProperty Dispute RecordsPreferredRecords of a legal dispute that involves real estate, and may involve anyone who has an interest in the propery in question. These records can refer to a broad array of disputes over the ownership of land, due to encroachment or a problem with the recorded deeds.
GovernmentCourtDecrees NisiPreferredRecords from a court, mainly in the United Kingdom, that represent an intermediate order in cases of divorce. The decrees specify a condition that is to be met, after which a permanent order is issued. Includes the names of the parties to the action, their addresses, and possibly the reasons for the divorce.
GovernmentCourtEstate Probate NoticesPreferredNotices placed in newspaper announcing the probate of the deceased's estate
GovernmentCourtLegal NoticesPreferredLegal notices that were often required to be published in newspapers related to lawsuits, name changes, business names, etc.
GovernmentCourtSharia RecordsPreferredRecords from courts in Muslim majority countries that follow the laws in the Koran and Hadith regarding family and domestic issues. Records may include female guardianship, adoption, divorce and inheritance matters. These documents often include names of family members and their relationships.
GovernmentCitizenshipConsulate RecordsPreferredDocuments created, processed, or issued at consulates or embassies, such as travel or immigration applications, work permits, travel visas, passports, registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, adoptions of nationals living abroad.
GovernmentCitizenshipIdentity CardsPreferredOfficial documents issued by a governmental entity to validate the identity of the person presenting the card. Typically include: person's name, date of birth, address, and photograph.
GovernmentCitizenshipNaturalization and Citizenship FilesPreferredAll correspondence and submitted forms for an individual seeking citizenship. Typically include a declaration of intent to become a citizen and renounce allegiance to a foreign government and a petition for citizenship, and result in a certificate being issued. Records usually contain: name, country of birth or allegiance, date of the application, occupation, names of spouse and children. Some list the date, port of arrival into the country and the name of the ship.
GovernmentCitizenshipPassports - InternalPreferredDocuments the identity of a person for domestic use. Uses have included restricting citizens of a subdivided state to employment in their own area (preventing their migration to richer cities or regions), recording the ethnicity of citizens to enforce segregation or prevent passing, and controlling access to sensitive sites or closed cities.
GovernmentCitizenshipPassports - InternationalPreferredOfficial documents issued by a government, certifying the holder's identity and citizenship and entitling them to travel under its protection to and from foreign countries. Typically includes a photo of the holder. Passport applications have a wealth of genealogical information.
GovernmentCitizenshipVisasPreferredGovernment endorsements, typically attached to a passport, that certify the holder is allowed to enter, leave, or stay for a specified period of time in a foreign country.
GovernmentCitizenshipAliyah DocumentsPreferredOfficial records of both legal and illegal immigrants to Palestine and Israel, from 1919-1974, including Youth Aliyah. Records are usually in Hebrew and contain first and last name, age, birth country, arrival date, and conveyance. May also include gender, marital status, citizenship, ethnic group, type of visa, occupation, training, education, names of relatives in Palestine/Israel, names and ages of the accompanying family members, and date of arrival in Palestine/Israel. Most of these files are in Hebrew; however, they also contain documents in English, German, and other languages, according to the correspondents. Current (2021) required documentation includes passport, birth certificate, proof of Judaism, photograph of family members making aliyah, health declaration form, letter of recommendation, and a background check.
GovernmentCitizenshipAliyah Passport RecordsSynonymOfficial records of both legal and illegal immigrants to Palestine and Israel, from 1919-1974, including Youth Aliyah. Records are usually in Hebrew and contain first and last name, age, birth country, arrival date, and conveyance. May also include gender, marital status, citizenship, ethnic group, type of visa, occupation, training, education, names of relatives in Palestine/Israel, names and ages of the accompanying family members, and date of arrival in Palestine/Israel. Most of these files are in Hebrew; however, they also contain documents in English, German, and other languages, according to the correspondents. Current (2021) required documentation includes passport, birth certificate, proof of Judaism, photograph of family members making aliyah, health declaration form, letter of recommendation, and a background check.
GovernmentCitizenshipCitizenship AnnouncementsPreferredLists published in legal gazettes or other periodicals, identifying naturalizations and/or new surnames
GovernmentCivil ActionAppointments to Public OfficePreferredDocuments that record the official assignment of a person to a government position.
GovernmentCivil ActionForced Labor RecordsPreferredDocuments related to forced labor. Includes work documents such as cards, labor records, forms, certificates, working books, and correspondence; records that deal with labor detail in labor camps, ghettos, factories, fields, and elsewhere; the conscription to forced labor; reports about the amount of work performed; and the permission to travel to work by train.
GovernmentCivil ActionLawsuitsPreferredDocumentation of legal proceedings in a dispute against a party or parties. They contain descriptions of claims, complaints, testimonies, judgements, and settlements.
GovernmentCivil ActionName Change RecordsPreferredDocumentation of a legal change of name. The procedure varies by jurisdiction and time period. In general, common law jurisdictions have loose procedures for a name change while civil law jurisdictions are more restrictive. A person must officially register the new name with the appropriate authorities whether the change was made as a result of a court order, marriage, divorce, adoption, or any other method.
GovernmentCivil ActionDeed Poll Records for Legal Name ChangeSynonymDocumentation of a legal change of name. The procedure varies by jurisdiction and time period. In general, common law jurisdictions have loose procedures for a name change while civil law jurisdictions are more restrictive. A person must officially register the new name with the appropriate authorities whether the change was made as a result of a court order, marriage, divorce, adoption, or any other method.
GovernmentCivil ActionNotary RecordsPreferredOfficial documents attested to by a public officer (notary) recognized by the government and commissioned within the territorial jurisdiction. May include marriage contracts, real estate law, wills, estates, obligations and discharges, termination of companies, agreements, powers of attorney, sworn affidavits etc. For genealogists, notarial records can offset the loss or destruction of registers of civil status. In some cases, notarial records are the only documents that can confirm the kinship of an individual.
GovernmentCivil ActionPlans and PermitsPreferredDocuments that detail construction projects submitted for approval to the local civic authorties. Typically include plan drawings and applications that include details about individuals and organizations requesting approval.
GovernmentCivil ActionDivorce registersPreferredOfficial logs of divorces either within a governmental jurisdiction (civil record), or by rabbi or a religious court. Registers may include names and ages of husband and wife, where they were divorced, and why.
GovernmentNational and LocalLocal Tax RecordsPreferredTax Assessors', Treasurers', and Recorders' office records. Examples include deeds, mortgages, assessment data, tax details, and parcel maps. 18th and 19th century Eastern European Tax Lists generally list the family name, first name, and father's name of all heads of households in the community. May include additional information about other family members. Many indicate the ages and dates of death. Some indicate profession or are specifically compiled based on profession like Merchant Lists or Craftsmen and Guild Lists.
GovernmentNational and LocalTown RecordsPreferredRecords kept by town clerks/officials. These records may contain information about births, marriages, deaths, burials, appointments, oaths of allegiance, land records, military enrollments, mortgages, name changes, care of the poor, school records, surveys, tax lists, town meeting minutes, and voter registrations. Varies by location and date.
GovernmentNational and LocalVoting RegistersPreferredOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalElectoral RollsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalElection RegistersSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalState Duma ElectorsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalRabbi ElectorsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalMunicipal ElectorsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalResidents ListsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalElectors ListsSynonymOfficial lists of individuals authorized to cast a vote in an election to be held by either a governmental jurisdiction or religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalCensusesPreferredOfficial count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals by household or address.
GovernmentNational and LocalPopulation Control and Movement RecordsSynonymOfficial count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals by household or address.
GovernmentNational and LocalRevision ListsPreferredComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
GovernmentNational and LocalFamily Household ListsSynonymComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
GovernmentNational and LocalReviski SkaskiSynonymComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
GovernmentNational and LocalResidency RegistrationSynonymComprehensive lists of the taxpaying population to which almost all the Jews belonged. Revision Lists were revised or updated, sometimes several times, until the next census was recorded.
GovernmentNational and LocalBorder Area RecordsPreferredAdministrative, legislative, and population records documenting residents/settlers in colonies (often agricultural) in border areas of a country.
GovernmentNational and LocalColonization RecordsPreferredRecords and lists documenting settlers in colonies and communes; typically include descriptions of farm lands and livestock.
GovernmentNational and LocalCommune RecordsPreferredRecords and lists documenting administrative, legislative, and population matters for a Jewish religious community.
GovernmentNational and LocalLicenses - BusinessPreferredLegal documents that authorize the operation of a business in a jurisdiction. They give a business owner(s) the right to conduct entrepreneurial activities as set forth in the license.
GovernmentNational and LocalLicenses - FirearmsPreferredLegal documents that allow the licensee to buy, own, possess, or carry a firearm within a jurisdiction, often subject to a number of conditions or restrictions, especially with regard to storage requirements or the completion of a firearms safety course, as well as background checks, etc.
GovernmentNational and LocalLicenses - Motor VehiclePreferredLegal documents that authorize an individual to operate a motor vehicle and includes identifying information such as: name, age, date of birth, gender, eye color, hair color, weight and height.
GovernmentNational and LocalLicenses - OccupationalPreferredRecords issued by a jurisdiction, bureau, or agency that certify that an individual can legally engage in a regulated occupation and the use of a specific title in the practice of an occupation, profession, or vocation.
GovernmentNational and LocalBox Tax RecordsPreferredLists by head of household that document taxes paid on kosher meat. Head of household is identified by family name, first name and patronymic. The box taxes were collected by the Jewish community from its members and used for various social needs, including the Rabbi’s salary.
GovernmentNational and LocalKupah TaxesSynonymLists by head of household that document taxes paid on kosher meat. Head of household is identified by family name, first name and patronymic. The box taxes were collected by the Jewish community from its members and used for various social needs, including the Rabbi’s salary.
GovernmentNational and LocalPuske TaxesSynonymLists by head of household that document taxes paid on kosher meat. Head of household is identified by family name, first name and patronymic. The box taxes were collected by the Jewish community from its members and used for various social needs, including the Rabbi’s salary.
GovernmentNational and LocalCandle Tax RecordsPreferredLists that document taxes paid for Sabbath candles. The candle taxes were used to support the needs of Jewish education. These lists of taxpayers were usually broken down by "well-to-do families," "average families," and "poor families" and contain little information about individual families.
GovernmentNational and LocalFamilianten - Mannschaftsbuecher RecordsPreferredRecords kept by the Habsburg (Bohemia and Moravia) government of which families lived in which towns in order to enforce the quota of Jews families through the issuance of marriage permits. Each record comprised the name of county, registration number of the family in the whole land, the registration number of the family in the county, name of the father, his wife, his sons and a few other family details. The quota was in force 1726 – 1848.
GovernmentNational and LocalMannschaftsbuecher in MoraviaSynonymRecords kept by the Habsburg (Bohemia and Moravia) government of which families lived in which towns in order to enforce the quota of Jews families through the issuance of marriage permits. Each record comprised the name of county, registration number of the family in the whole land, the registration number of the family in the county, name of the father, his wife, his sons and a few other family details. The quota was in force 1726 – 1848.
GovernmentNational and LocalJewish White Books - Liber Judeorum AlbumPreferredRecords kept under the statutes of King Colomon of Hungary listing Jewish moneylenders and their transactions, and the names of Jews who purchased items from Christians and the items bought.
GovernmentNational and LocalKahal BooksPreferredRecords from the local governing body of a European Jewish community administering religious, legal, and communal affairs.
GovernmentNational and LocalPinkas(im)PreferredBooks, journals, or ledgers that document the religious, charitable or trade functions of a Jewish community; typically include rules and regulations, names of its founders and members, and minutes of its meetings. Many pinkasim are considered works of art.
GovernmentNational and LocalPolice RecordsPreferredOfficial records and logs of arrests, warrants, and incidents attended to and documented by police.
GovernmentNational and LocalPublic RecordsPreferredRecords made by a government agency or officer in the performance of official duty, or filed with a government office, and subject to public inspection.
GovernmentNational and LocalReal Estate Tax RecordsPreferredRecords kept by a municipality showing the assessed value of a piece of real property, and the taxes paid on that property.
GovernmentNational and LocalSocial Security and Assistance FilesPreferredGovernment records that pertain to benefits it provides to individuals and families in support of their material needs due to circumstances such as retirement or disability. In the US, Social Security applications provide a mother's maiden name, and the Social Security Death Index provides information regarding death dates of people who registered in the Social Security program.
GovernmentNational and LocalTax RecordsPreferredRecords kept by a jursidiction that document the taxes owed and paid by an individual, family, or business. May include income, sales, real estate, and many more types of taxes. Most tax records are confidential.
GovernmentNational and LocalAlien FilesPreferredRecords kept by the government of foreigners living in the country.
GovernmentNational and LocalForeigner ListsSynonymRecords kept by the government of foreigners living in the country.
GovernmentNational and LocalCadastral MapsPreferredA comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property' metes-and-bounds of a country. In most countries, legal systems have developed around the original administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions and location of land parcels described in legal documentation. A land parcel or cadastral parcel is defined as a continuous area, or more appropriately volume, that is identified by a unique set of homogeneous property rights
GovernmentNational and LocalCivil MarriagesPreferredA legally recongnized civil marriage may take place on a different date than the religious marriage. In some countries a civil marriage must take place prior to a religious ceremony.
GovernmentNational and LocalCivil WeddingsSynonymA legally recongnized civil marriage may take place on a different date than the religious marriage. In some countries a civil marriage must take place prior to a religious ceremony.
GovernmentNational and LocalLetters of ProtectionPreferredLetters conveying the right to reside in a certain town for a certain number of years in exchange for the payment of an annual fee
GovernmentNational and LocalSchutzbriefenSynonymLetters conveying the right to reside in a certain town for a certain number of years in exchange for the payment of an annual fee
GovernmentNational and LocalBooks of Non-Permanent ResidentsPreferredRegisters of people living in a place other than their official place of residence.
GovernmentNational and LocalBooks of Permanent ResidentsPreferredRegisters of people according to their official place of residence, whether or not they actually resided in that place. Usually organized by address, entries include surname, given name, names of parents, age, place of birth, civil status, and religion, and occupation. Women who married a permanent resident were recorded at the residence of the husband, as were children born to them. The Books may be indexed by name.
GovernmentNational and LocalSurname Adoption ListsPreferredThe lists created by local European governments when Jews were required to adopt a surname under Napoleonic decree.
GovernmentNational and LocalVaccination RecordsPreferredRecords naming those in a town who were vaccinated during a particular period.
GovernmentNational and LocalWar Memorial PlaquesPreferredVisual displays of the name of individuals, often alumni of an educational instutition or residents of a particular locality, who have died in armed conflict. These memorials, which may be carved on a wall or monument, usually include names and dates of death.
GovernmentNational and LocalInternal passportsPreferredIdentity documents that give individuals permission to live in a place where they were not registered. For example, in the Russian Empire, it was required to register every year in an official place of residence even if a person had settled somewhere else. An internal passport was easier to arrange than a change of official registration before the end of the 19th century. Use of internal passports has varied by country and time period.
GovernmentNational and LocalInternal migration listsPreferredLists made by the Soviet government to move residents (Jewish and non-Jewish), voluntarily or involuntarily, including refugees during World War II. Lists exist both by the place from which people were evacuated and by where they went.
GovernmentNational and LocalSupplemental Revision ListsPreferredAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
GovernmentNational and LocalAdditional Revision ListsSynonymAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
GovernmentNational and LocalInterim Revision ListsSynonymAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
GovernmentNational and LocalAudit ListsSynonymAfter the compilation of a Revision List, interim lists were made in the succeeding months and years. The purpose of these interim lists was to catch up with people who were missed in the main enumeration. The information in the interim lists is the same as in the main list.
GovernmentMilitaryPhoto CollectionsPreferredPhotographs that are collected and kept by individuals, organizations, communities, the military, Yad Vashem and many other sources. Includes photographs posted on social media.
GovernmentMilitaryConscriptionsPreferredLists and Records of individuals called up for compulsory military service. Often used as a census substitute for males. May include name, birth date, religion, marital status, literacy, and may include names of fathers, brothers and brothers' ages.
GovernmentMilitaryDied in Service RecordsPreferredRecords of individuals who died in military service, usually in a particular conflict. Lists may include name; birth date; service unit; date, place, and manner of death; interment details; or other information.
GovernmentMilitaryCasualtiesSynonymRecords of individuals who died in military service, usually in a particular conflict. Lists may include name; birth date; service unit; date, place, and manner of death; interment details; or other information.
GovernmentMilitaryDischarge RecordsPreferredRecords of the release of individuals from active military service. May include date, place and home address of an individual time of entry into and relase from service; last duty assignment and rank; military job specialty and education; decorations; medals; badges; citations; campaign awards; total creditable service; foreign service credited; and separation information (type of separation, character of service, authority and reason for separation, separation and reenlistment eligibility codes).
GovernmentMilitaryDraft Registration RecordsPreferredRecords of registration of individuals for military purposes. Varies greatly by country and date. Records typically include the individuals' : name, address, place and date of birth, employer's name and address and name and address of person who will always know the registrant's address.
GovernmentMilitaryEnlistmentsPreferredRecords of military service enrollment, usually includng information about the person enrolling, and date and place of enrollment.
GovernmentMilitaryMilitary Pension RecordsPreferredDocumentation of pensions paid to people who have served in the military or to their survivors. Application files may contain supporting information such as names and birth dates of children and spouses, proof of birth or marriage, discharge papers, and depositions from a soldier's friends and family.
GovernmentMilitaryService RecordsPreferredRecords of an individual's miitary service. Includes information such as enlistment/appointment; duty stations and assignments; training, qualifications, performance; awards and medals; disciplinary actions; separation/discharge/retirement; pension applications, and payment records; etc. Availability and access varies by country and date of service.
GovernmentMilitaryMilitary Service RecordsSynonymRecords of an individual's miitary service. Includes information such as enlistment/appointment; duty stations and assignments; training, qualifications, performance; awards and medals; disciplinary actions; separation/discharge/retirement; pension applications, and payment records; etc. Availability and access varies by country and date of service.
GovernmentMilitaryCourt Martial RecordsPreferredRecords kept during a military court or trial. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment.
GovernmentMilitaryDraft Evaders and Military Deserters ListsPreferredList of individuals who evaded the draft or military personel who deserted the armed forces
GovernmentMilitaryGold Star RecordsPreferredRecords of families who lost their children serving in the military
GovernmentMilitaryHospital Records of Wounded Military PersonnelPreferredHospital admission cards and other records about care and discharge for military personnel wounded in battle during wartime.
GovernmentMilitaryMilitary Awards and DecorationsPreferredAwards given to members of armed services for conduct during hostilities, especially those awarded for valor.
GovernmentMilitaryMilitary RecognitionsSynonymAwards given to members of armed services for conduct during hostilities, especially those awarded for valor.
GovernmentMilitaryMilitary Service Tribunal FilesPreferredRecords from bodies formed by borough, urban district and rural district councils to hear applications for exemption from conscription into the British Army during the First World War. Include names, addresses, ages, and occupations of applicants, and may include medical information and reasons for requesting permanent or temporary exemption.
GovernmentMilitaryWar Time Military Exemption Tribunal FilesSynonymRecords from bodies formed by borough, urban district and rural district councils to hear applications for exemption from conscription into the British Army during the First World War. Include names, addresses, ages, and occupations of applicants, and may include medical information and reasons for requesting permanent or temporary exemption.
GovernmentMilitaryMilitary Unit HistoriesPreferredHistories written about specific military units and during specific timeframes such as WWI, WWII. Unit histories might be written for smaller units like specific companies to ship histories to battalion and army level.
GovernmentMilitaryPrisoner of War RecordsPreferredMilitary account books listing information about individual prisoners, issuing of supplies, duties assigned, and disciplinary actions. Account books kept by invidual prisoners documenting supplies received and any financial transactions with their captors.
GovernmentMilitaryVeteran RecordsPreferredDischarge records from the armed forces of a country. Include dates of enlistment and termination of service, location of service, and medals or commendations. May include medical information about service-connected injuries or illnesses, information about next of kin, and requests for pensions. Information varies by country and time of service.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredRecorded TestimoniesPreferredOral or written accounts by witnesses regarding treatment of individual victims or survivors of an organized massacre.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredAutobiographiesPreferredAccounts, written or oral, of a person's own life in their own words.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredMemoirsSynonymAccounts, written or oral, of a person's own life in their own words.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredDiaries / JournalsPreferredBooks in which an individual has kept a record of events, personal activities, transactions, feelings, experiences, and so forth. Often entries are made daily, but sometimes less frequently.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredPersonal Correspondence - Juedische PrivatbriefePreferredPersonal records of written letters, emails or texts exchanged between or among people or businesses.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredScrapbooksPreferredBlank books in which various items (such as newspaper clippings or pictures) are collected and preserved
PersonalSelf-AuthoredFamily Event DiariesPreferredSmall diary-type books, preprinted with a calendar and often decorations or poetry quotations, in which vital events are entered. For example, birthdays, and anniversaries of their extended family, with a view to sending congratulations.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredFamily Birthday BooksSynonymSmall diary-type books, preprinted with a calendar and often decorations or poetry quotations, in which vital events are entered. For example, birthdays, and anniversaries of their extended family, with a view to sending congratulations.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredFamily NewslettersPreferredWritten publications, issued periodically, with information and news for people with a specific interest in common. Types of newsletters include family, neighborhood, and religious.
PersonalSelf-AuthoredKeepsake BooksPreferredNotes: like the baby books, wedding books
PersonalSelf-AuthoredPersonal Family History Research NotesPreferredResearch notes and files on family history (hard copies and computer files).
PersonalSelf-AuthoredPhoto AlbumsPreferredBooks and binders with blank pages or sleeves for photographs. There are some specialty albums often for weddings and bar/bat mitzvahs.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsSchool YearbooksPreferredBooks published yearly as a report or summary of statistics or facts that may document names of a school's affiliated persons. It is a publication that serves as a written and photographic record of the year's activities, its students, and teachers. These books can exist at any level: elementary, secondary (high school), or university.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsCultural ArtifactsPreferredJewish ritual objects such as Torah coverings or post circumcision binders (tora wimpeln). They may be useful for genealogical purposes when they are insribed with names of donors and/or honorees.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsPersonal ArtifactsPreferredPersonal possessions such as jewelry may be inscribed with information about the owner.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsYearbooksPreferredBooks published yearly as a report or summary of statistics or facts that may document names of an organization's affiliated persons and events during a year. For example, it may commemorate a deployment of a United States Navy ship. Note, there is a separate record type for School Yearbooks.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsBook InscriptionsPreferredNames and other information written on the front endpaper or title page of a book.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsEphemeraPreferredItems not part of the public or published record, often kept as mementos or to show membership. Examples include mugs, gavel and block sets, kippot/yarmulkes, benchers, pen and pencil sets, and pen stands.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsGroup DirectoriesPreferredBooks or lists of names and contact information for people in a specific group. Types of community directories include family, neighborhood, religious, alumni, and society/club/organization.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsCommunity DirectoriesSynonymBooks or lists of names and contact information for people in a specific group. Types of community directories include family, neighborhood, religious, alumni, and society/club/organization.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsGuest Books/RegistersPreferredBooks with blank pages for guests to sign at occasions such as weddings and funerals.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsNeedleworkPreferredHousehold items made by decorating fabric with thread/floss/yarn/cloth. Types of needlework include embroidery, needlepoint, quilting, and appliqué. Examples of items include album quilts and samplers.
PersonalOwned ArtifactsTrophies and MedalsPreferredKeepsakes given for excellence in competitions and for other achievements. Made of a flat piece of metal, some may be worn by means of a ribbon or pin.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsKetubotPreferredDocuments that are the formal contract in a Jewish religious marriage that specify financial protection for the wife in the event that the husband dies or divorces her. A Ketubah contains the date and location of the marriage, the name of the rabbi, names of witnesses and in most cases includes the bride's and groom's parents names.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsKetubahsSynonymDocuments that are the formal contract in a Jewish religious marriage that specify financial protection for the wife in the event that the husband dies or divorces her. A Ketubah contains the date and location of the marriage, the name of the rabbi, names of witnesses and in most cases includes the bride's and groom's parents names.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsGetsPreferredDocuments in Jewish religious law which effectuates a divorce between a Jewish couple
PersonalPersonal DocumentsJewish Divorce RecordsSynonymDocuments in Jewish religious law which effectuates a divorce between a Jewish couple
PersonalPersonal DocumentsAddress BooksPreferredLists of names, addresses, and phone numbers, kept either manually on a mechanical device, or on a computer.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsRolodexSynonymLists of names, addresses, and phone numbers, kept either manually on a mechanical device, or on a computer.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsMechanical Address BooksSynonymLists of names, addresses, and phone numbers, kept either manually on a mechanical device, or on a computer.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsContact ListsSynonymLists of names, addresses, and phone numbers, kept either manually on a mechanical device, or on a computer.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsAppointment BooksPreferredBooks for writing in names, dates, and locations of appointments in date order. May be spiral-bound.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsAutograph BooksPreferredBooks with blank pages for individuals to sign and write messages.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsAward CertificatesPreferredDocuments given for excellence in competitions and for other achievements.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsBusiness CardsPreferredSmall cards printed with name, title, business address, and other contact information.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsBusiness StationeryPreferredLetter paper with matching envelopes, each printed or engraved with name, company, address, and other contact information.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsCalling CardsPreferredSmall cards presented when visiting that are printed with the visitor's name and sometimes the visitor's address.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsEulogiesPreferredAddresses by clergy or others at funeral
PersonalPersonal DocumentsEvent ProgramsPreferredPrinted sequences of the events and the main participants in a religious service, recital, graduation, etc.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsMembership CertificatesPreferredDocuments given for membership in a society/club/organization.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsMemorial CardsPreferredLaminated cards about the size of a playing card containing basic information about the deceased.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsFuneral CardsSynonymLaminated cards about the size of a playing card containing basic information about the deceased.
PersonalPersonal DocumentsRecipesPreferredInstructions for preparing a dish that are copied by hand, typewriter, or other means onto sheet paper or card stock.
PersonalPersonal OtherInterviewsPreferredAudio or video recordings of meetings, or transcriptions of such recordings, in which the interiewer elicits information from the interviewee about the interiewee.
PersonalPersonal OtherPersonal Photographs and VideosPreferredImages captured by a camera, either digital or analog (slides, negatives, prints, videos). May have accompanying information about the subjects and/or setting, including names, dates, and places.
PersonalFinancial and LegalWillsPreferredDocuments that specify to whom one's assets shall be disbursed after death. Wills can provide family names and relationships. Wills may be witnessed, notarized, and on file and or recorded in a governmental court office.
PersonalFinancial and LegalLand and Property RecordsPreferredLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
PersonalFinancial and LegalDeedsSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
PersonalFinancial and LegalLand GrantsSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
PersonalFinancial and LegalMortgagesSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
PersonalFinancial and LegalValuation RollsSynonymLegal documents that contain a description of real property and information about its ownership. Types of documents include deeds (ownership records), mortgages (loans secured by real property), liens (legal encumbrances against real property), and land grants (awards from public ownership), recorded in a jurisdiction.
PersonalFinancial and LegalBank ChecksPreferredPrinted forms for directing a bank to pay money.
PersonalFinancial and LegalBank StatementsPreferredMonthly statements of a customer's bank account showing transactions and balances.
PersonalFinancial and LegalInsurance PoliciesPreferredRecords related to various types of insurance policies--may provide information on family relationships, residence, health, etc.
MediaPublicationsNewslettersPreferredBulletins that are issued with regular frequency; include articles about the activities of the organization, topical news items, and sometimes educational items of interest. They are sent to members, prospective members and partners. E-newsletters are delivered electronically via e-mail.
MediaPublicationsJournalsPreferredPublished periodicals that focus on a particular subject or professional activity. They often include Bio(s) of article author(s).
MediaPublicationsNewspapersPreferredPublications issued daily or weekly containing news and feature articles, advertisements, editorials, and correspondence.
MediaPublicationsPenumeranten ListsPreferredLists of individuals' pre-ordered published items.
MediaPublicationsPeriodicalsPreferredPublications issued on a regular schedule
MediaPublicationsGazettesPreferredPeriodical publications that have been authorized to publish public or legal notices.
MediaPublicationsJournalsSynonymPeriodical publications that have been authorized to publish public or legal notices.
MediaPublicationsNewspapersSynonymPeriodical publications that have been authorized to publish public or legal notices.
MediaArticlesBirth AnnouncementsPreferredWritten announcements of the birth of a child; (originally) one published in a newspaper in a section devoted to announcements of births, deaths, marriages, etc.; (later also) one sent to family and friends, posted on social media, etc.
MediaArticlesBirth NoticesSynonymWritten announcements of the birth of a child; (originally) one published in a newspaper in a section devoted to announcements of births, deaths, marriages, etc.; (later also) one sent to family and friends, posted on social media, etc.
MediaArticlesMarriage AnnouncementsPreferredNotices that inform the community of a marriage, issued before or after the marriage takes place. Often they are written articles in newspapers or newsletters. In recent years these announcements may be mailed or posted on social media.
MediaArticlesWedding AnnouncementsSynonymNotices that inform the community of a marriage, issued before or after the marriage takes place. Often they are written articles in newspapers or newsletters. In recent years these announcements may be mailed or posted on social media.
MediaArticlesDivorce AnnouncementsPreferredNotices that inform the community that a couple has legally and officially terminated their marriage. Often published in newspapers or newsletters.
MediaArticlesObituariesPreferredPublished or unpublished death announcements. A particular obituary may be a simple death notice or an elaborate biography of the deceased. Obituaries usually give the name of the deceased and the death or burial date. They may also contain information such as the birth date, marriage date, names of parents and spouse, children, occupation, education, and the location of living family members at the time the obituary was written.
MediaArticlesAdvertisementsPreferredPaid announcements, as of goods for sale or events, in newspapers or magazines, on radio or television, or on the internet.
MediaArticlesEditorialsPreferredArticles written by or on behalf of the editor of a publication expressing the opinion of the editor
MediaArticlesEngagement AnnouncementsPreferredWritten announcements of a formal agreement to get married, published in a newspaper in a section devoted to social announcements or printed and sent to family and friends, posted on social media, etc.
MediaArticlesEntertainment ArticlesPreferredArticles reporting on a musical, dramatic, or comedic performance or a celebrity.
MediaArticlesEvent AnnouncementsPreferredArticles reporting on an upcoming public event.
MediaArticlesFeaturesPreferredHuman interest stories about a person, event, or place.
MediaArticlesNewsPreferredNonfiction reporting about events, usually written in a straighforward, concise reporting style
MediaArticlesSports ArticlesPreferredNonfiction reporting about a sports competition, about sports competitors, or sports business people
MediaArticlesAnniversary AnnouncementsPreferredPublished announcements of marital anniversaries (i.e. 50th Anniversary) of persons that list information about children and grandchildren, etc.
MediaArticlesBar / Bat Mitzvah AnnouncementsPreferredAnnouncements of Barmitzvahs (and I suppose Batmitzvahs) in newspapers.
MediaArticlesCitizenship AnnouncementsPreferredLists published in legal gazettes or other periodicals, identifying naturalizations and/or new surnames
MediaArticlesDeath AnnouncementsPreferredPublished notices of the death of an individual. Usually include basic biographical information, and next of kin. May also include achievements, and whether or not the person was a veteran.
MediaArticlesDeath NoticesSynonymPublished notices of the death of an individual. Usually include basic biographical information, and next of kin. May also include achievements, and whether or not the person was a veteran.
MediaArticlesEstate Probate NoticesPreferredNotices placed in newspaper announcing the probate of the deceased's estate
MediaArticlesLegal NoticesPreferredLegal notices that were often required to be published in newspapers related to lawsuits, name changes, business names, etc.
Compiled SourcesRegistriesSurname / Town RegistriesPreferredLists of family names of persons who resided in a specific geographic location. A list may be a compilation based on historical records, or an online tool that allows users to enter surnames in their family and locate others researching the same surnames.
Compiled SourcesRegistriesSurname ExchangesSynonymLists of family names of persons who resided in a specific geographic location. A list may be a compilation based on historical records, or an online tool that allows users to enter surnames in their family and locate others researching the same surnames.
Compiled SourcesRegistriesInsurance Policy ListsPreferredLists kept by an insurance company of people owning policies.
Compiled SourcesRegistriesTombstone Inscription ListsPreferredCompilation of headstone inscriptions organized by cemetery, as a list, published book, or searchable database, sometimes including images. Information may include name of the deceased and the given name of the deceased's father (and sometimes mother), date of death, often age at death or date of birth, and sometimes other family members interred nearby.
Compiled SourcesBooksBiographiesPreferredNarratives that are a detailed description of a person, living or deceased, and their life stories.
Compiled SourcesBooksLineagesPreferredBooks that trace the individuals descended from a common ancestor.
Compiled SourcesBooksYizkor BooksPreferredBooks that describe historical Jewish communities in Eastern and Central Europe, focusing on community life and individuals. Groups of former residents, or landsmanshaften, have published these books as tributes to their former homes and the people who were murdered during the Holocaust. The majority were written in Hebrew or Yiddish; many have been translated into English.
Compiled SourcesBooksCommunity CookbooksPreferredBooks of recipes produced by Sisterhoods and other societies/clubs/organizations. They also include cookbooks produced by newspapers containing recipes from their readers.
Compiled SourcesBooksJewish Community HistoriesPreferredBooks or journal articles about Jews from a specific geographical area (e.g. The Jews of Philadelphia) or a specific context (e.g. The Jewish Soldier from Michigan in the Civil War)
Compiled SourcesBooksLocation HistoriesPreferredIn the US, at the turn of the 20th century, locations published books with titles like "The History of....from its Earliest Times to the Present" books. Usually county/counties specific, sometimes states, cities or geographical areas, e.g. Washington Territory, Chicago or Hudson River Valley.
Compiled SourcesBooksMilitary Unit HistoriesPreferredHistories written about specific military units and during specific timeframes such as WWI, WWII. Unit histories might be written for smaller units like specific companies to ship histories to battalion and army level.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesLineagesPreferredBooks that trace the individuals descended from a common ancestor.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesFamily Group SheetsPreferredDocuments that record information about the parents and children in one family in a consistent form/format. Family group records show names, dates and places of births, marriages, and deaths, and their value is enhanced by citing the sources that document these events in the lives of family members. They may also include or reference photographs, censuses, change of residence, land purchases or sales, wills proved, and any other events in the family members' lives.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesFamily Group RecordsSynonymDocuments that record information about the parents and children in one family in a consistent form/format. Family group records show names, dates and places of births, marriages, and deaths, and their value is enhanced by citing the sources that document these events in the lives of family members. They may also include or reference photographs, censuses, change of residence, land purchases or sales, wills proved, and any other events in the family members' lives.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesFamily TreesPreferredCharts that name people in a family over many generations and represent their relationships to one another.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesGenealogiesSynonymCharts that name people in a family over many generations and represent their relationships to one another.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesPedigree ChartsSynonymCharts that name people in a family over many generations and represent their relationships to one another.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesHeraldryPreferredPublished works that trace royal or noble lineage.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesNobilityPreferredPublished works that contain genealogical and biographical information about noble people (people with special political and social status - often titled by ruler of a kingdom), the families they married in to, and their descendants.
Compiled SourcesGenealogiesPeeragesSynonymPublished works that contain genealogical and biographical information about noble people (people with special political and social status - often titled by ruler of a kingdom), the families they married in to, and their descendants.
Compiled SourcesPublished ResearchUniversity DissertationsPreferredUnpublished works by university graduate students that present their research of a subject. Some may include personal, family, and oral histories.
Compiled SourcesPublished ResearchDissertationsSynonymUnpublished works by university graduate students that present their research of a subject. Some may include personal, family, and oral histories.
Compiled SourcesPublished ResearchThesesSynonymUnpublished works by university graduate students that present their research of a subject. Some may include personal, family, and oral histories.
Compiled SourcesPublished ResearchDNA / Genetic StudiesPreferredSources of information provided by companies testing for DNA and reported DNA information
Compiled SourcesDigital MediaEmail ListsPreferredPostings of compiled genealogical information sent to a group email distribution list. Lists are typically composed of members interested in a common topic, such as Litvak or Rabbinic genealogy.
Compiled SourcesDigital MediaElectronic Mailing ListsSynonymPostings of compiled genealogical information sent to a group email distribution list. Lists are typically composed of members interested in a common topic, such as Litvak or Rabbinic genealogy.
Compiled SourcesDigital MediaSocal MediaPreferredPostings of compiled genealogical information, posted to a social media outlet, such as Facebook page or group or a private or public blog, typically with a common genealogical interest.
Compiled SourcesDigital MediaJewish Community HistoriesPreferredBooks or journal articles about Jews from a specific geographical area (e.g. The Jews of Philadelphia) or a specific context (e.g. The Jewish Soldier from Michigan in the Civil War)
Compiled SourcesDigital MediaOnline DatabasesPreferredA collection of related information held in a computer and accessible in a variety of ways. Some genealogical databases contain information from a wide variety of sources; some are available free of charge and others require a subscription. Newspaper and map databases also contain valuable information for genealogical research.
Compiled SourcesDigital MediaPrivately Hosted Genealogical WebsitesPreferredWebsites managed by an individual with information about members of the family. Typically they include a family tree, and they may have other features. The individual can control who has access to the site and what information they see.
Reference ToolsInstructionsFinding AidsPreferredDocuments to assist a researcher in searching within a particular collection, such as a documentary inventory and description of the materials, their source, and their structure. Often contain detailed, indexed information about a specific collection of records within an archive.
Reference ToolsInstructionsHow to Conduct ResearchPreferredArticles, books, and wikis that provide guidance to conducting genealogical research, either in general or within specific geographic areas or topics. Most archival websites provide information about what information the site contains and how best to research within that site, including instructions for using on-site search engines.
Reference ToolsLocatorsCemetery Plot MapsPreferredMaps that depict the layout of a cemetery and identify individual lots or even individual graves. They may be used in conjunction with online burial registry sites to locate individual graves.
Reference ToolsLocatorsGazetteersPreferredGeographical dictionaries or directories that contain place names and reference information. Often used in conjunction with a map or atlas.
Reference ToolsLocatorsMapsPreferredImages that represent of an area showing physical features, cities, roads, etc. May be created for different purposes (census, military, transportation, etc.) and can identify political boundaries, place names, parishes, geographical features, cemeteries, churches, synagogues, and migration/transportation routes. Historical maps are especially useful for understanding boundary changes or finding communities that no longer exist.
Reference ToolsLocatorsLocator Finding ToolsPreferredA reference book, online utility, or database, for identifying a particular geographic location.
Reference ToolsContextCemetery HistoriesPreferredNarratives that describe the origin, location, and other details (such as section layouts and timeframes) about a particular cemetery. May include information about related congregations, landsmanshaften, burial societies, and the names of prominent individuals buried in the cemetery.
Reference ToolsContextHistory BooksPreferredNarratives, often chronological in approach, that describe past events. May include information on border changes, migrations, and other useful information helpful to family history research.
Reference ToolsContextYearbooksPreferredBooks published yearly as a report or summary of statistics or facts that may document names of an organization's affiliated persons and events during a year. For example, it may commemorate a deployment of a United States Navy ship. Note, there is a separate record type for School Yearbooks.
Reference ToolsFacts and FiguresAlmanacsPreferredBooks that contain facts and statistics about countries (such as population, climate, government), events, personalities and subjects; weights and measures; sports record; and similar types of information.
Reference ToolsNamesGiven Names AlternatesPreferredLists or books that document groups of related name variants (e.g. secular, religious, kinnui/nicknames, etc.) within the same language or across languages.
Reference ToolsNamesSurnames Meaning and MigrationsPreferredReference books or articles that explain the origins and meanings of surnames (e.g. occupational, geographical, physical characteristics, etc). May also include information of the towns or regions where those surnames were historically in use.
Reference ToolsNamesSurname GuidesSynonymReference books or articles that explain the origins and meanings of surnames (e.g. occupational, geographical, physical characteristics, etc). May also include information of the towns or regions where those surnames were historically in use.